Deformities of the spine:
Scoliosis denotes lateral curvature of the spine, there are five types:
Infantile scoliosis – begins in the first year of life as a simple curve, usually convex to the left, without known cause (two groups resolving and progressive).
Idiopathic structural scoliosis – most important type of structural scoliosis; begins in childhood and tends to increase progressively until the cessation of skeletal growth. Pathology – any part of the thoraco-lumbar spine may be affected. Treatment includes: turnbuckles (Risser jacket); Milwaukee distraction brace; Dwyer technique; Luque technique.
Secondary structural scoliosis – hemi-vertebra, poliomyelitis, neurofibromatosis.
Compensatory scoliosis – Lumbar scoliosis is seen as a compensatory device when the pelvis is tilted laterally.
Sciatica scoliosis – a temporary deformity produced by the protective action of muscles in certain painful conditions of the spine. Cause – prolapsed inter-vertebral disc impinging upon a lumbar or sacral nerve.
Kyphosis – term used to define excessive posterior curvature of the spinal column. The deformity may take the form of a long rounded curve (‘round back’) or there may be a localised sharp posterior angulation (‘hump back’).
Lordosis – is the opposite deformity to kyphosis. The term denotes excessive anterior curvature of the spinal column (‘hollow back’).
Coccydynia – any painful condition in the region of the coccyx; typically coccydynia develops after an injury – usually a fall on the ‘tail’. Occasionally a history of injury is lacking. There is probably a strain of the sacro-coccyygeal joint in other cases the lesion is thought to be simply a contusion of the periosteum over the lower sacrum or the coccyx. Pain can be worse when sitting, treatment includes: short-wave diathermy.
Congenital abnormalities include:
- Lumbar & sacral variations
- Spina bifida